Solar irradiation under Earth Rotation set air movements from day and night temperature differences harnessing harvestable kinetic energy. Windmills have been being used for thousands of years onshore for freshwater irrigation. the last few decades they have been employed for propelling electric generators onshore as well as recently also offshore.
Uses the transition of Water’s potential energy into kinetic energy released under gravity. Most common forms use higher elevated lock barrages. Water released for descend in one step can drive a turbine to propel an electric generator. This form to some extent can release Renewable Energy on demand from storage. Non-storable forms are river- or under-sea -current turbines using the downstream draft to propel an electric generator.
Most commonly known geothermal use are springs from hydrothermal reservoirs along volcanic lodes. If not connected to water veins they need hydraulic stimulation. While both such deep well types are fit to propel electric generators, the third type just uses the soil’s stable all year-round temperature as a reference for electrically driven heat pumps that can transform temperature difference to the ambient into
HVAC energy very economically.
Bioenergy recovery from wood or charcoal and other biomass is the oldest energy system used by mankind. Meanwhile there’s been tremendous progress in chemical energy recovery from biomass. Biomass has about two-fold Hydrogen per Carbon ratio over oil predestining it for refining petrochemical substitute biofuels or biomaterials. Such second life of biogenic Carbon comes at 3 times Carbon- and 5 times Water- Efficiency over oil.
Burning biomass, one always shall realize to co-fire a fuel together with its extinguishing medium – water ligated in it.
It disposes twice the CO2 into atmosphere than Natural Gas would. The latter can exemplary be substituted by Biogas from fermentation of moist organic residues or gasification of solids approximately doubling the recoverable energy.
Solar energy is our planet’s most abundant direct and indirect energy resource. Earth intercepts solar energy 10 thousand times the rate of anthropogenic energy consumption. There are Technologies available to convert the sun’s photons into electrons, its infrared radiation directly into heat or concentrate it for high temperature molten salt storage.